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用唱的,我能說了! Speaking Through Singing! Part 2

Updated: Jul 30, 2023


(English below)

文/ Lisa Eng/ Zoe





Here is Part 2. Part 1 please click the link above.


🌟關於音樂治療在語言、言語功能上的應用,小整理的第二部分來啦🤘歡迎有興趣的讀者參考交流🎵


嗓音語調治療法 (Vocal Intonation Therapy, VIT)

💡是什麼?

藉由發聲練習,改善各類嗓音問題,如發聲(phonation)、音調、音調變化、音域、音量、音色、共鳴、呼吸支持等。


👫誰適用?

因結構、神經、生理、心理因素造成的嗓音問題。


🎶治療性音樂應用:

與合唱團、聲樂課的發聲練習有相似之處,可能的訓練內容包括:

🌼頭、頸、肩放鬆練習

短跳音練習:練習橫膈膜及腹部肌肉的使用

🌼樂句、音階發聲練習:練習換氣、氣息分配、音域

🌼長音練習:練習氣息分配、音量變化、音質(如共鳴位置)

🌼在樂句中加入節奏、重音、漸強等音樂元素:練習語韻、氣息支持

🌼搭配湯匙、手指等道具練習:改善舌頭位置、口型

*發聲練習搭配鋼琴伴奏時,伴奏提供速度、強弱、音高、節奏等聽覺提示,能有效提升治療成效,同時增加個案練習動機。



治療性歌唱 (Therapeutic Singing, TS)

💡是什麼?

泛指治療中的歌唱應用,來綜合訓練各類言語及語言功能、呼吸功能,同時提升個案的治療意願。


👫誰適用?

有語言、言語、呼吸訓練需求的各類個案。


🎶治療性音樂應用:

有特定目的性地在治療中加入歌唱應用。

例如,在做完OMREX、VIT訓練,達成特定目標後,透過TS做綜合練習。



透過音樂的發展性語言及言語訓練 (Developmental Speech and Language Training through Music, DSLM)

💡是什麼?

用適合發展年齡的音樂媒材、音樂體驗(如:歌唱、吟誦、樂器玩奏),來促進言語、語言發展。例如:數字、顏色、形狀等認知上的單字、概念訓練,及發音、言語清晰度等動作練習。


👫誰適用?

語言發展遲緩,正在發展新的語言、言語技能的兒童,可能的診斷包含:言語失用症、自閉症、腦性麻痺、智能障礙等。


🎶治療性音樂應用:

DSLM並非特定介入方式,而是涵蓋了各類音樂應用。治療師需根據個案診斷特性與現階段語言發展的需求,藉由文獻了解非音樂的介入手法,若合適時與個案的語言治療師溝通,並轉譯為治療性音樂應用。


例如:將個案現階段練習的子音-母音單字融入歌曲中,提供重複練習發音的機會,同時提高學習特定發音時的正向情緒連結。



透過音樂的象徵性溝通訓練 (Symbolic Communication Training through Music, SYCOM)

💡是什麼?

透過音樂即興進行非口語及口語溝同互動,模擬並訓練語言規則、輪流、手勢的使用、一來一回的對話、問答、開始與中止一段溝通、情緒的表達等等。


👫誰適用?

完全缺乏功能性溝通、表達能力的個案。可能是腦損傷、泛自閉症、腦麻、及各種其他疾患造成。


🎶治療性音樂應用:

各式的訓練溝通行為的音樂即興。

例如:治療師與個案面對面輪流在同一個鼓上即興,個案在即興玩奏中發展眼神、手勢的溝通,及輪流的概念。



♥️有任何心得想法,歡迎與我們分享!

♥️若有勘誤,也請不吝指教~


Reference:

Thaut, M., & Hoemberg, V. (2014). Handbook of neurologic music therapy (First). Oxford University Press

Thaut, M. (2005). Rhythm, Music, and the Brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications. Routledge.



 

Speaking Through Singing! Part 2



Vocal Intonation Therapy VIT

💡HOW?

To improve voicing problems, e.g. phonation, tone, tone changing, vocal range, volume, intonation, breathing support, resonance, etc. through voice practice


👫WHO?

Structural, neurological, physical, or psychological voice issues.


🎶THERAPEUTIC MUSIC APPLICATION

The exercise is similar to the choir warmup practice, possible trainings including:

🌼 Head, neck, shoulder relaxation practice

🌼 Short and instant sound(i.e. staccato) singing: to train the diaphragm and abdominal muscle

🌼 Music phrases and scale vocal exercising: practice breathing, breath distribution, vocal range

🌼 Long-notes singing practice: breath distribution, volume change, voice quality( e.g. resonance position)

🌼 Embedding rhythm, accent (i.e.emphasizing on particular notes), crescendo (i.e. gradually increase the volume), and other musical elements in a musical phrase: to practice speech prosody, breathing support

🌼 Practice with an object or prop, e.g. a spoon or a finger: to reinforce tongue position, mouth shape



*VIT practice will be accompanied with piano by a music therapist. The piano accompaniment provides auditory cues, which includes tempo, dynamics, pitch, rhythm, etc., can highly improve the therapeutic efficacy and increase client’s motivation to practice.



Therapeutic Singing, TS

💡HOW?

TS generally refers to the singing application during music therapy. It is designated to train various speech and language functions, respiratory functions, and boost clients' motivation to receive rehabilitation.

👫WHO?

Clients have needs for improve their speech, language, and respiratory functions.


🎶THERAPEUTIC MUSIC APPLICATION

Applying singing with specific aims in music therapy sessions.

Ex: After finishing OMREX, VIT practice and achieving the goal, the client will do a comprehensive practice through TS.



Developmental Speech and Language Training through Music, DSLM

💡HOW?

Applying musical media/resources, musical experiences( e.g. singing, chanting, instrument-playing), which are developmental-age-appropriate, to reinforce speech and language development. For example, vocabulary of cognitive concepts( e.g. numbers, colors, shapes, etc), and articulation, and punctuations of the concepts themselves.


👫WHO?

Children with speech delay, developing new speech and language skills. Possible diagnoses: childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, intellectual disability.


🎶THERAPEUTIC MUSIC APPLICATION

DSLM is not an approach with step by step guidelines, but an application that widely covers different music applications. Music therapists will learn non-music intervention through research literature based on client's diagnosis, prognosis, and current speech development needs. Discuss with speech and language pathologists if possible, and transfer to therapeutic music application.


Example: Embedded client’s ongoing vowel practice into a song to provide the opportunity to practice the specific vowel, in the meantime, increase the positive emotional connection.



Symbolic Communication Training through Music, SYCOM

💡HOW?

Through music improvisation to conduct verbal and non-verbal communication, mock and instruct language rules, taking turns, and the usage of gestures, back and forth conversation/Q & A, start and stop a conversation, and emotional expression, etc.


👫WHO?

Clients who have a complete lack of functional conversation or expressive ability, possibly caused brain injury, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and others.


🎶THERAPEUTIC MUSIC APPLICATION

Music improvisation to train communication and behavior with various applications


For example, a music therapist and the clients sitting face to face improved playing the same drum. Clients will develop non-verbal communication including eye-contact and hand gestures and the concept of taking turns.



♥️Let us know what you think, and don’t be shy to share with us.

If you find anything needing correction, please do not hesitate to advise.


Reference:

Thaut, M., & Hoemberg, V. (2014). Handbook of neurologic music therapy (First). Oxford University Press

Thaut, M. (2005). Rhythm, Music, and the Brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications. Routledge.



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